The Bible – Old Testament
That day King Ahasuerus gave the house of Haman, enemy of the Jews, to Queen Esther; and Mordecai was admitted to the king’s presence, for Esther had revealed his relationship to her.
The king removed his signet ring from Haman, and transferred it into the keeping of Mordecai; and Esther put Mordecai in charge of the house of Haman.
In another audience with the king, Esther fell at his feet and tearfully implored him to revoke the harm done by Haman the Agagite, and the plan he had devised against the Jews.
The king stretched forth the golden scepter to Esther. So she rose and, standing in his presence,
said: “If it pleases your majesty and seems proper to you, and if I have found favor with you and you love me, let a document be issued to revoke the letters which that schemer Haman, son of Hammedatha the Agagite, wrote for the destruction of the Jews in all the royal provinces.
For how can I witness the evil that is to befall my people, and how can I behold the destruction of my race?”
King Ahasuerus then said to Queen Esther and to the Jew Mordecai: “Now that I have given Esther the house of Haman, and they have hanged him on the gibbet because he attacked the Jews,
1 you in turn may write in the king’s name what you see fit concerning the Jews and seal the letter with the royal signet ring.” For whatever is written in the name of the king and sealed with the royal signet ring cannot be revoked.
At that time, on the twenty-third day of the third month, Sivan, the royal scribes were summoned. Exactly as Mordecai dictated, they wrote to the Jews and to the satraps, governors, and officials of the hundred and twenty-seven provinces from India to Ethiopia: to each province in its own script and to each people in its own language, and to the Jews in their own script and language.
These letters, which he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus and sealed with the royal signet ring, he sent by mounted couriers riding thoroughbred royal steeds.
In these letters the king authorized the Jews in each and every city to group together and defend their lives, and to kill, destroy, wipe out, along with their wives and children, every armed group of any nation or province which should attack them, and to seize their goods as spoil
throughout the provinces of King Ahasuerus, on a single day, the thirteenth of the twelfth month, Adar.
2 A copy of the letter to be promulgated as law in each and every province was published among all the peoples, so that the Jews might be prepared on that day to avenge themselves on their enemies.
Couriers mounted on royal steeds sped forth in haste at the king’s order, and the decree was promulgated in the stronghold of Susa.
Mordecai left the king’s presence clothed in a royal robe of violet and of white cotton, with a large crown of gold and a cloak of crimson byssus. The city of Susa shouted with joy,
and there was splendor and merriment for the Jews, exultation and triumph.
In each and every province and in each and every city, wherever the king’s order arrived, there was merriment and exultation, banqueting and feasting for the Jews. And many of the peoples of the land embraced Judaism, for they were seized with a fear of the Jews.
1  Whatever is written . . . cannot be revoked: the king cannot directly grant Esther’s request (⇒ Esther 8:5) to revoke the previous decree against the Jews because of the irrevocable character of the laws of the Medes and Persians (⇒ Esther 1:19; ⇒ Daniel 6:9); but he empowers Esther to issue a new decree in his name which renders the earlier decree without effect; cf ⇒ Esther 3:12f.
2  Avenge themselves on their enemies: partly in self-defense (⇒ Esther E:20), and partly to express the fact that the extreme cruelty designed against the Jews by their enemies now recoiled upon the latter as a punishment. Cf ⇒ Esther 9:1f.